The kidneys are two of the most active organs in the body. They use the most ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate), that is, the energy source of our bodies. What do they use all this energy for? That’s what this essay is about.
The blood runs through the kidneys, which act as a cleaning and regulatory station. The nervous system detects alterations in the blood’s component concentration levels. If we have high salt levels in our blood, the nervous system signals the pituitary gland to release ADH (antidiuretic hormone) in order to return the blood solute levels to normal. We call normal blood concentration levels “homeostasis”.
The nitrogenous waste in the body is dangerous because it transforms into ammonia, which the body needs to eliminate. The course of action the human body, and mammals too, is to convert the ammonia into a detoxified form, called urea. We pass this urea in our urine, effectively ridding the waste out of our bodies. Other substances such as high salt levels in the blood, are also excreted in urine. Depending on how much water concentration is on the blood, urine can have various levels of solute concentration.
So, our kidneys do a much more than what is written down here; this was a quick overview of overall kidney function: different hormones retain homeostasis in the blood and elimination of too many solutes, sodium and nitrogenous waste.